However, in the real world, there is no single leadership style that can be applied in all situations. In 1969, Blanchard and Hersey developed Situational Leadership® Theory in their classic book Management of Organizational Behavior. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Due to social values, experience and thoughts associated with feminine characteristics (Goldberger, Clinchy, Belenky and Tarule, 1987), women leaders generally use the “soft” approach when dealing with others. According to situational leadership models in general, leaders should adopt different leadership approaches depending on the situations that they encounter. Introduced by James MacGregor Burns (1978), the transformational leadership concept defines an approach which encourages positive and valuable changes in performance and morale of followers based upon the behaviours and characteristics of leaders. In his liaison role, Terrill tried to maintain positive relationship with the engineers and not take sides with the top management by using any form of coercion on his team. Even though we can all find common ground with other people at some level, humans are unique individuals. This type of power can weaken if the reward is no longer perceived as valuable by the receiver. There is the emotional maturity of the worker to consider, as well as the job maturity which comes from employee experience. The reality of the situation is everyone has strengths and weaknesses. The theory behind situational leadership is more closely tied to using the style needed to be successful given the existing work environment, or the specific needs of the business. The ability of those in higher ranking positions to influence their subordinates is driven by power. Some could say one of the strengths of contingency theory is its longevity Contingency theory has survived over the decades as a valid and reliable approach on how to achieve effective leadership because it is grounded in empirical research. Looking at the two-by-two matrix, the Delegating Leadership Style is described as Low Task, Low Relationship, whereby intervention from managers is kept to a minimum with the assumption that the subordinates are able, willing and confident of accomplishing the tasks at hand. Instead of staying focused on the overall objectives, situational managers can fall into a trap where they are evaluating or responding to an immediate circumstance all the time. He successfully proved his point by showing top management that the high stack of report produced over the last three weeks were not read by anyone because no one asked to look at them. Company Registration No: 4964706. Positional power refers to external power which is vested in an individual’s formal role, position or authority. In the DGI International case study, John Terrill adopted the Delegating Leadership Style (Hersey and Blanchard, 1982) based on the assumption that the team of engineers in the division that he was heading has high level of job readiness or maturity owing to the fact that they are the highest paid and best educated employees within the organization. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! The situational leader has a clear vision of where the team is going. This style works best with people who know their limitations and are open to change. The engineers did not need much prompting and directions from him to take on new initiatives which help contribute to their productivity. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? style you exhibit, and making you aware of its strengths and weaknesses. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Limitations in Applications: One disadvantage of transformational leadership is that it is not universally applicable. Situational leadership is a leadership style in which a leader adapts their style of leading to suit the current work environment and/or needs of a team. Consistency, predictability and emotional stability are desired qualities in leaders. In the role as school principal which requires more interpersonal ability, women display greater task-orientation. (2006) entails that power need not have goal compatibility but only dependence. This present paper examines the situational leadership approach as one of the styles that leaders and managers of organisations can use. Not Having a Vision for the Future. This allows the leader to motivate individual employees in a way that matches their needs, giving everyone a better chance to reach a positive outcome. * Leadership is responsive with high orientation to solve present issues. The managers and the leaders are the greatest assets of the organization Barclays. They don’t insist on a specific set of rules that must be followed by everyone. They must also understand the scope of the project or task that must be completed. He evidently showed them that the amount of time spent on writing the report had gone to waste, and that the precious time should be spent by the engineers to accomplish other important engineering duties. Leadership competencies which work in one given situation may not be effective under different circumstances (Graef, 1983). Behavioral theories of leadership focus on how leaders approach a situation and whether they dictate orders or involve others to encourage support. Situational leadership refers to a leadership style where the leader of an organization has to modify his style to fit the progression level of the followers he is trying to influence. Project initiation, business identification and leads for opportunities. 1) Great Man Theory of Leadership: Leaders are born, not made. Handles internal crises and conflicts involving employees, and also external changes. Traits like micromanaging, inconsistency, a lack of awareness and other similar qualities can be attributed to weaknesses in leadership skills. When direct reports see this change occur, it can leave them with questions. The social learning theory is one of many approaches that child development and educational scholars use to explain how children learn. It is sometimes misunderstood as being biologically determined and solely related to the sexual characteristics of men and women. He did not reprimand the engineers for the poor performance of the Technical Services division without first finding out the cause of their low contribution to productivity; instead, he offered to resolve the conflict by trying to get to the root of the problem and find a lasting solution that will help them to increase their output in the organisation. No matter what strengths a singular leader has, he or she still has weaknesses and shortcomings -- … They’re forced to be more in a telling space than a listening space, which means they’re stuck in one core leadership style, even when trying to be effective. The situational leader may try to encourage a team to become more independent performing the tasks by letting them take routine decisions. When leaders effectively adapt their leadership style to their followers’ needs, work gets done, relationships are built up, and basically, the follower’s developmental level rises, to everyone’s benefit. Strengths and Weaknesses; Implications for Workplace; Connection to Other Chapters; Discussion Questions; Strengths. Weak in predictive value, does not explain how specific skill sets will impact performance 4. No plagiarism, guaranteed! From the study, it was concluded that: Female principals are more task-oriented compared to male principals. Followers of this leadership style will feel more trusted and will build a closer working relationship with the leaders and foster better team work. Terrill’s delegating style can be further identified when he promised to stay off the engineer’s backs and also make sure that top management did the same. Ability to Categorize Observable Behaviors. That allows for fires to be put out and morale to be salvaged, but it also creates issues where personal development can be stalled. The person holding this power is able to impose punishment. The organization is using decentralized …  Follower maturity, which defines the readiness of followers to perform in a given situation, is based on two major factors – the ability and confidence in performing the tasks. We all have different experiences and perspectives that create diversity. Regardless of gender, successful and effective leaders will find their preferred leadership style, that can be a blend of gender-specific roles, which is most suitable to the situation that they are in. Even with the detailed research that was recorded during the trait theory studies, trait theorists found weaknesses that existed. By adapting to the change, the situational leader can adopt an approach that will help that worker stay productive. A situational leader may be deemed inconsistent and hard to … From Disabled and $500k in Debt to a Pro Blogger with 5 Million Monthly Visitors, 13 Situational Leadership Advantages and Disadvantages, 15 Laissez Faire Management Style Advantages and…, 14 Co Leadership Advantages and Disadvantages, 11 Autocratic Leadership Advantages and Disadvantages, "From Disabled and $500k in Debt to a Pro Blogger with 5 Million Monthly Visitors. Measurement of job readiness is subjective and based on several factors, mainly job ability and job confidence (Hambleton et al., 1977(. We generally think of companies competing by means of their products, but they probably compete more by means of their leaders than their products. Taking two different test subjects and stating what their reactions will be to similar situations is not possible. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Participative Leadership: Strengths and Weaknesses The simple act of making decisions is an essential task leaders must perform effectively to succeed. In situational leadership, it is up to the leader to change his style, not the follower to accommodate to the leader’s style. It is an element which is able to shape managers and followers, and is the key underlying factor for leadership effectiveness. Hence, leaders are most successful and effective when they can evaluate a situation accurately and act according to the requirements of the situation instead of generally applying the same form of leadership across all circumstances (Fiedler, 1951). Here are the advantages and disadvantages of situational leadership to think about and discuss. All these four leadership styles have varying levels in terms of follower ability and confidence. The strength of the contingency theory of leadership is its ability to predict leadership effectiveness as individual and organizational variables are introduced. In 1947, Max Weber described a number of different leadership styles that could be viewed within the confines of corporate management. However, the above differences do not limit men and women to any one leadership style. This promotes self esteem of each member of the organization. Managers who find themselves in a position where tasks must be completed in specific ways will find the flexibility of being situational to be disadvantageous in many circumstances. A situational leader must be able to determine the strengths and weaknesses of their direct reports. After that, the engineers willingly voice out their grouses and complaints when Terrill asked them point blank as to why the division was not performing as expected. He then suggested that management do away with the daily report and one brief report from his office on a monthly basis is sufficient. Leaders are a key human resource in any organisation. Instead of being locked into one general leadership style, all of them are incorporated into their approach. Besides strengths, situational leadership theory has its weaknesses, namely its over-simplified description of the relationship between leader behaviors and situational variables and lack of empirical research that … Using the power vested in his position as the manager of the team coupled with the mandate given by top management to solve the productivity issue, Terrill issued an order which was against the wish of company management. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. You’ll see leaders who are directing people as tasks are completed, or goals are formed by being specific with their instructions. Being appointed as the head of Technical Services Division clearly indicated that John Terrill held legitimate power over the department. Here is a look at some of the common strengths that have been discovered. Advantages of Situational Leadership. The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model is built on the concept using "follower maturity" as the key issue which affects adjustment in leadership styles. The last several decades have witnessed the emergence of women holding managerial roles in organizations. This style of leadership is open to abuse. Situational leadership is based more on meeting an exact need, at the moment, then an approach which looks toward the long-term needs of a team. Although men still hold the fort, more women are seen entering the workforce with an increasingly number of them being promoted to high managerial positions (Druskat, 1994). *You can also browse our support articles here >. Female principals are also more democratic or participative while male principals adopted a more autocratic or directive approach. The Pros: Strengths and Benefits of Transformational Leadership. At the same time, empathy is developed within the leadership of the agency because each worker must be approached correctly. Legitimate power, reward power and coercion power fall in this category. They are also traits that come to mind when you think of authentic leadership. Management will not be willing to pay them highly if they do not possess high level of job maturity, which refers to their job capabilities and confidence in accomplishing their tasks as engineers. Extends beyond leadership, making it hard to focus on developing just as a leader 2. Through his research, Mintzberg (1973) also managed to conclude that all the above ten roles fall into three broad categories which are interlinked. The main strengths of situational leadership are flexible . When he found out that the engineers were demotivated by the amount of daily reporting that they had to do instead of focussing on their engineering tasks, Terrill asked the engineers to carry out their engineering duties like they were supposed to and increase the division’s productivity while he took care of the daily report generation problem with top management. Therefore, he carefully played his role by offering them a possible solution. These individuals may struggle to remain flexible and adapt to situations that could benefit from more listening and less “telling.” Rigidly insisting on a specific set of rules and procedures can be demoralizing to a workforce, and can dissuade employees from coming forward with important information about … Transformational leaders help employees accept change through engagement and improving relationship or cooperation. 6. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Helps develop a strong understanding of leadership 2. By being role models, such leaders will encourage employees to develop skills which could help them enhance their productivity. With situational leadership, it is easy to conflate the two. Uniform Reactions Are Not Probable. The approach of a situational leader is intuitive and flexible. People change and evolve based on the daily circumstances they encounter. The company is forced to stick with that type of leadership because other leadership styles only focus on the structure or process. These five sources of power can be broadly categorised into positional power and personal power. … Barclays is listed on the London Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. That causes the leadership traits to change, and the responses offered by the situational leader may be inappropriate for the situation. Therefore, successful leaders can be characterised as those who are able to adjust their leadership styles according to situations which warrant their intervention. Theories; Timeline; Topics Psychology portal; Situational strength is defined as cues provided by environmental forces regarding the desirability of potential behaviors. Transformational leaders brought about changes in organizations by inspiring, motivating and sometimes acting as role models for employees to identify with (Bass, 1985). Trait Theory Weaknesses. If there is a bad morning for a worker, then their capacity for stress will be likely diminished. Based on the case analysis presented and the leadership model depicted in the table above, it can be concluded that John Terrill had adopted the Delegating Leadership Style in dealing with the situation at DGI International’s Technical Services division. Survey Reflections Leadership … For these reasons I believe Leadership Member Exchange is very important. In charge of internal and external information links. To illustrate, while the company management requires that the engineers turned in daily reports to headquarters, Terrill ordered them to turn in the reports to his office instead. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. [ 1 ] Follower maturity, which defines the readiness of followers to perform in a given situation, is based on two major factors - the ability and confidence in performing the tasks. The conceptual weaknesses I found are similar to those in most earlier leadership theories, and they include ambiguous constructs, insufficient description of explanatory processes, a narrow focus on dyadic processes, omission of some relevant behaviors, insufficient specification of limiting conditions (situational variables), and a bias toward heroic conceptions of leadership. However, Terrill had anticipated a showdown with top management and had already thought up a plan to back up his actions. Terrill also exercised his authority when he issued immediate order for reports to be sent to his office instead of the headquarters as warranted by top management. Once a situational leader begins to work, there is no turning back for that team. Fourth, there was no clear … That process can cause some leaders to become fixated on the end prize instead of looking at the details required to achieve that goal. In organisations, punishments can be in the form of reprimand, disciplinary action, suspension, demotion, dismissal, etc. VAT Registration No: 842417633. To illustrate the point that gender differences in leadership styles do exist (Kanter, 1991), we will take a closer look at Transformational (largely associated with women leaders) and Transactional (dominant in male leaders). Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Then he exerted his legitimate power by demanding to know the reasons for their lack of productivity and factors which hamper their expected performance. In other words, other factors must be taken into account when deciding which leadership style to use in a given situation. With the four strengths of the situational approach, some weaknesses were also identified by Northouse. On the other hand, expert power and referent power can be grouped as personal power because they involve internal or personal traits which belong to individuals. In the case of DGI International’s Technical Services division, John Terrill practiced the delegating style based on the profile of the team in his division. During the showdown with top management in the president’s office, Terrill displayed his negotiation skills by informing top management that the main reason for Technical Services division’s low output was that the engineers were more occupied with writing daily reports than actually doing their engineering tasks. Situational strength is said to result in psychological pressure on the individual to engage in and/or refrain from particular behaviors. Barclays is listed on the London Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange. Based on their aptitude and the fact that the engineers requested top management to stop making them spend too much time on writing reports, Terrill was able to gauge that the employees possess high capabilities of performing their tasks and are also willing and confident to do their job provided that they were given the opportunity and time needed to accomplish their tasks. Currently, some countries are headed by female premiers and presidents, for example Australia and New Zealand. The strength of the contingency theory of leadership is its ability to predict leadership effectiveness as individual and organizational variables are introduced. First, there is lack of clarity of progression through development levels. The Theory Of Situational Approach Essay 1075 Words | 5 Pages. Terrill also successfully exercised the division’s expert power to ensure top management did not impose trivial matters (such as writing internal daily reports) which consume much of the engineers time so that they could concentrate on accomplishing their engineering tasks. This role was demonstrated during his first management meeting with the engineers. In male dominated settings such as the military, transformational leadership may not be preferred. Delegating. 1st Jan 1970 Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Terrill seemed to have gained support from his engineers because they cheered him when he was about to meet top management to fight for their cause. Leaders who are able to adopt different styles based on what is required of them will be most successful. This theory was first called the “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.” During the mid-1970s, it was renamed the Situational Leadership® Theory. In DGI International’s case study, John Terrill applied a combination of both position and personal powers to solve the problem faced by his subordinates in the Technical Services division. Instead, they should be allowed to focus more on accomplishing their engineering tasks. Although the theory behind this form of leadership attempts to bring equality into the workplace, there is no substitute for real experience. Leadership Theories There are quite a few different leadership theories available for people to take information from and use in business settings and even personal settings. Let’s have a look at the eight major theories, along with their strengths, weaknesses, and examples. Below, I have provided a brief synopsis of my findings with respect to each of the leadership instruments. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. The only way to get to know someone is to step into their shoes. Transmit information to other via phone calls, memos, notes, etc. The participative approach of leadership has numerous strengths. Maintain information and contacts. Many cultures across the globe regarded women as the weaker sex with limited roles to play in the social system. Some leaders prefer to roll up their sleeves and get to work with everyone, coaching as they work to promote equality within their team. Coaching Leadership. The ability to influence based on a person’s knowledge, skills and expertise which originates from within an individual. 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