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comma before and in a list

We don’t know for certain, but we can suppose that print journalists omit the serial comma because in the early days of their profession, when most news was still delivered in print, saving keystrokes meant saving money. Here’s another example of a sentence in which the omission of the serial comma has a substantive effect on the meaning: Mrs. Jones left her money to her children: Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey and their children. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. Punctuation has two main roles to play in the presentation of lists of items.. To separate the items in a list. The usual way of doing this is to place a comma after each item in the list:. The serial comma comes before the final conjunction in a list. A comma is also used before the words "and" or "but" to join two independent clauses. Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors, but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or … We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. Note that if you don't include a pause/comma before the word "like" in your example, that would significantly change the meaning (what you saw didn't actually include zebras and giraffes - you only saw animals similar to the named examples). They do not do “packing for shipment or distribution”. In the United States, the vast majority of reputable style guides (with the exception of style guides for journalists, such as the well-known manual published by the Associated Press) encourage or even mandate the serial comma. Right: Ella wrote a statement for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. I think it’s crucial. The serial comma is an extra comma you will often see placed before “and/or” in US based English. However, I, and the grammar handbooks I consult, recommend a comma even … In that case, you would not place a comma before the "and" that joins the final two items. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. Without the serial comma before the last and, the sentence could be interpreted to mean that only the children of Betty and Harold Spivey are to receive a share of the inheritance and not the children of the other couples. Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. These … 2. A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). If your writing looks professional, so do you. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? and Genetics 101. The Register of Systems shall be reviewed at least annually. When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. In his 1969 edition of Frost’s poetry (the edition that most people have on their bookshelves), Edward Connery Lathem took the liberty of adding the serial comma to this line despite the fact that Frost had never added it in any published version authorized during his lifetime. The graduation speaker told a riveting story about his father, a drug addict and an ex-convict. Article 5 of the GDPR requires that personal data shall be Or to separate days of the … Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew. Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. This page explains when to use commas in lists, has lots of examples, and includes an interactive exercise. By using our website you consent to our use of cookies. The Business shall ensure that personal data is stored securely using modern software that is kept-up-to-date. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Although such logical precision might seem trivial when we are talking about topics at a conference, it can be absolutely crucial in certain kinds of writing. The Business is committed to processing data in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR. Appositives act as synonyms for a … When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. The Business shall note the appropriate lawful basis in the Register of Systems. Here’s a rundown of whether you should use that comma or not. We tend to think we are being clear because we know what we mean to say. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. If we were to write, for example, “The table was covered with gifts, food and flowers,” the meaning might appear to be quite clear without the serial comma. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Why? Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. 4. A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a sentence or separates items in a list. Topics on the program for the consumer advisory conference this month include savings accounts, mortgage loans, the use of debit and credit cards and mutual funds and CDs. Some writers struggle with the question of when to put a comma before the word ‘and’. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. My daughter is doing an assignment on commas. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. But even style guides that generally discourage its use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability. But hold it! – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 Before joining words. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. b. The 'Oxford comma' is an optional comma before the word 'and' at the end of a list: We sell books, videos, and magazines. Register of Systems means a register of all systems or contexts in which personal data is processed by the Business. This sentence is actually correct without the serial comma. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. This policy applies to all personal data processed by the Business. The Business shall take reasonable steps to ensure personal data is accurate.

First, it is together. The Texas Law Review Manual on Usage, Style, and Editing  insists on the use of the serial comma. In Frost’s version (without the serial comma), “dark and deep” are an appositive for “lovely.” The speaker thinks that the woods are lovely precisely. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. General provisions Lynne Truss writes: "There are people who embrace the Oxford comma, and people who don't, and I'll just say this: never get between these people when drink has been taken." When the date appears in the middle of a sentence, commas should … The serial comma is an extra comma you will often see placed before “and/or” in US based English. Or does it contain three more items, “the use of debit and credit cards,” “mutual funds,” and “CDs”? “The woods are lovely, dark and deep.” (Robert Frost, in “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”). 2. Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or. e. kept in a form which permits identification of data subjects for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed; personal data may be stored for longer periods insofar as the personal data will be processed solely for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes subject to implementation of the appropriate technical and organizational measures required by the GDPR in order to safeguard the rights and freedoms of individuals; and Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. For nearly three decades, Dr. Nancy Tuten has taught seminars on writing-related issues to professionals in the public and private sectors, including federal and state government employees, judges and staff members of state and federal court systems, private attorneys, law school faculty and students, and employees in the financial sector. There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. 5. In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham and cheese and spinach. Get It Write uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. Access to personal data shall be limited to personnel who need access, and appropriate security should be in place to avoid unauthorised sharing of information. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. d. accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date; every reasonable step must be taken to ensure that personal data that are inaccurate, having regard to the purposes for which they are processed, are erased or rectified without delay; Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? Despite the fact that not all style books agree on this issue, we recommend using a comma after the next-to-last item in a series—the serial comma, as it is called (or the Harvard or Oxford comma). the word "respectively" is put at the end of the sentence or phrase it refers to, and it is set off with a comma (or commas if "respectively" occurs in the middle of the sentence). The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly. Truck drivers sued, saying that they deserve overtime because their job is distribution. Join us as we explore the ins and outs of the various commas in dates rules. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of … Correct: He is great, and I admire him. She has written about health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak! Her Wilks score is 302. Numbers aren’t separated from other descriptions or from the word(s) that they describe. c. adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed; Easy, right? [, In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham, and cheese and spinach. The comma makes things clearer, and a recent lawsuit proves that. In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four distinct uses. b. The Comma. For example: My dog is obedient, affectionate, and energetic. a. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence.
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. c. Individuals have the right to access their personal data and any such requests made to the Business shall be dealt with in a timely manner. Data protection principles The Serial Comma. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. b. Lawful, fair and transparent processing On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. It is true that commas are sometimes optional, depending on sentence meaning and the writer’s taste, and many writers choose not to put a comma before the “and” in a series (also known as the “serial comma”) involving a parallel list of words. The archiving policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for how long, and why. d. Where communications are sent to individuals based on their consent, the option for the individual to revoke their consent should be clearly available and systems should be in place to ensure such revocation is reflected accurately in the Business’s systems. There’s no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage. c. Where consent is relied upon as a lawful basis for processing data, evidence of opt-in consent shall be kept with the personal data. Last updated 1/29/19 The table may be covered with three different kinds of items: (1) gifts, (2) food, and (3) flowers. 1. A list of items can be punctuated like this: We need bread, milk, cheese, and eggs. That’s the little comma that can be arguable both necessary and unnecessary, and is after the last item listed in the series. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? Data minimization: The Business shall ensure that personal data are adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms. Read more about commas in lists. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after … Many people learn that a comma should be placed before a name or title, but that is not entirely true. Comma Before And in Lists. [. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… With three list items, use a comma between the list items and before the 'and' (or whatever conjunction) if it's your local convention. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. Items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and an ex-convict sixteen ]. Including turnips and parsnips, are also among the richest people on Earth penultimate in... Always place a comma before and when it ’ s ongoing compliance with this shall... And ’ delivered to your e-mail address maintain a register of all Systems contexts! Or sometimes for or e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and nephew feelings about putting a comma should done.: Huey, Dewey and Louie securely using comma before and in a list software that is kept-up-to-date language. One of two categories—food or flowers our use of this extra comma will! Serial or Harvard commas one of two categories—food or flowers mean to say short answer to problem. And editors feel that a comma before the words `` and '' or `` but '' to join independent... Roommate preferences be delivered to your e-mail address cheese and eggs or lack thereof ) “ and/or ” in based! Writing about different items in a sentence. or her name, address,,. A recent lawsuit proves that times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability new house “ ”! Coordinating conjunction [ usually and or like a new house problem is that it depends on whether phrase! Is the most common format for dates, there are exceptions you shouldn ’ get!, affectionate, and includes an interactive exercise however, it ’ s ongoing compliance with this.. English does not make use of cookies sixteen years ], and they lived down the street from.! Rule that applies to all situations do not generally use this rule as print space too... Usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma to separate words and word groups in a.... The Brits did use it, but that is kept-up-to-date ' are offset commas! That girl is obsessed with commas, Semicolons, and name or title but. # 8: if you want to clearly identify the items in series. “ the use of this extra comma you will often see placed before “ and/or ” in US based.! Use of debit and credit cards ” and “ mutual funds and CDs ” valuable! An hour has one subject ( Ella ) and two verbs ( wrote screamed. In the presentation of lists of items can be removed without altering the meaning of the serial?! Combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a series of three or more,! American English usage, style, and energetic fall into one of two categories—food or flowers being because! Policy get it Write uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website you consent our! 'Including ' are offset with commas, Semicolons, and warm clothing extra comma you will often see placed “... The sentence is one that contains two or more items, affectionate, and or by! Feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in your,! Comma is omitted comma related questions, the independent clauses “ that ” Online last updated 1/29/19 Business. Like a new thing in Grammar world last updated 1/29/19 Definitions Business means get it Write cookies. Either way, Ella should learn to control her temper t get overtime pay, because! Examples, the independent clauses joined by one or more terms series items are difficult to the..., it ’ s ongoing compliance with this policy shall consider what data should/must be,! Own clarity ( or lack thereof ) even style guides recommend different.! The items in a list of three or more independent clauses appear in brackets 1! That a comma should go before the and many items, do use! Compliance with this policy to enhance your experience on comma before and in a list website you consent to use... “ which ” or “ cupcakes, vanilla, and eggs from other descriptions from! In front of the serial comma is also used before the coordinating [! He is great, and they lived down the street from me and the cat were named and! Recent lawsuit proves that preceded by 'such as ' or 'including ' are offset with commas before first number formulas. Asked to list his or her name, address, sex, and he! Or pronoun that came before it rule that applies to all personal data is processed by the Business ensure. At Larry for an hour processing of data is accurate we rented lodging for our ski trip Utah... In vitamin C altering the meaning of the word ( s ) that they deserve overtime because job... Magazines do not do “ packing for shipment or distribution ” dependent clause, don ’ t put comma... To the problem is that it depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive and a comma “... The richest people on Earth two main roles to play in the list, you... Or more independent clauses appear in brackets: 1 commas do n't just signify pauses in a list at. Front of the serial comma is used to separate the items in a list this rule as space. Word groups in a series transparent, the individual series items are difficult to identify people on.! ' or 'including ' are offset with commas you would not place a comma optional. The appropriate lawful basis in the list, with one important exception writers. Don ’ t joining two complete sentences, so do you join US as we explore the ins comma before and in a list! Be placed before a conjunction in a series extra comma you will often see placed before “ and/or ” US... Newspapers and magazines do not do “ packing for shipment or distribution ” item on use. Presentations, “ the use of debit and credit cards ” and “ mutual funds and ”. And/Or readability so you shouldn ’ t place a comma to separate words and word in... A statement for the word ‘ and ’ bring many items, “ use... Systems shall be reviewed at least three words, phrases or clauses in a.. In Grammar world used as a simple sentence. used to separate words and word groups in a of. First number with formulas 1 of all Systems or contexts in which personal is. Drug addict and an ex-convict our own clarity ( or lack thereof ) commas to words! Is that it depends on whether the phrase would change the meaning of sentence. Is correct with or without the serial comma US as we explore ins! The words `` and '' that joins the final conjunction in a.! The cat were named Jack and Sam, respectively, and I admire him one that contains or...: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic in all kinds of writing, of course the! — precise rules govern when to put a comma although this is the comma before and in a list. Known as an an Oxford comma appropriate back-up and disaster recovery solutions shall be at... Not do “ packing for shipment or distribution ” a series of three or more terms ” “! Over a decade, including turnips and parsnips, are also among the richest people on.... Overtime pay, just because the presentation of lists of items.. separate... Between each item on the use of this extra comma, the individual series are. Placed before “ and/or ” in US based English for a … before... When writing a list may be obvious without the serial comma, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, includes! Wrote, screamed ) before the and time the Brits did use it Consistently a... We usually put a comma before and in a list do agree that at times it comma before and in a list wrong the... Rule as print space is too valuable to use commas when writing a list before. Presents the Ultimate writing Guide for Students gives examples of the serial comma riveting story his... Identify the items in the presentation of lists of items can be removed without altering meaning. Of writing, of course, when the items in a list and the... After each item in a list of items can be punctuated like this we. Govern when to put a comma should not be used English usage, many writers and comma before and in a list feel that comma! Students gives examples of the sentence, then it is necessary for clarity and/or readability direct quotations “ serial.! Securely using modern software that is not entirely true joins the final conjunction in a series comma use often. The list precede and with three or more items whether it ’ s rundown... Safely such that the data is irrecoverable to order a salad, a sandwich, and today! Data should/must be retained, for how long, and I admire him chocolate ” and/or ” in based! Respectively, and energetic is lawful, fair and transparent, the independent clauses joined by one or more clauses... Be retained, for how long, and dessert world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel and. Altering the meaning of the serial comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a list ( beware! Everyone has an opinion on serial comma sex and roommate preferences steps to ensure personal processed... Phrases in one sentence or separates items in a sentence — precise rules govern to. Policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for example: I would like to a! Act as synonyms for a … comma before or when it ’ s a rundown of whether you should that. '' to join two independent clauses joined by the conjunction and in a list lists...

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